Black-box adversarial attacks present a realistic threat to action
recognition systems. Existing black-box attacks follow either a query-based
approach where an attack is optimized by querying the target model, or a
transfer-based approach where attacks are generated using a substitute model.
While these methods can achieve decent fooling rates, the former tends to be
highly query-inefficient while the latter assumes extensive knowledge of the
black-box model’s training data. In this paper, we propose a new attack on
action recognition that addresses these shortcomings by generating
perturbations to disrupt the features learned by a pre-trained substitute model
to reduce the number of queries. By using a nearly disjoint dataset to train
the substitute model, our method removes the requirement that the substitute
model be trained using the same dataset as the target model, and leverages
queries to the target model to retain the fooling rate benefits provided by
query-based methods. This ultimately results in attacks which are more
transferable than conventional black-box attacks. Through extensive
experiments, we demonstrate highly query-efficient black-box attacks with the
proposed framework. Our method achieves 8% and 12% higher deception rates
compared to state-of-the-art query-based and transfer-based attacks,

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